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蚂蚁也会通过隔离"病号"来防止病菌传播

kira86 于2019-02-15发布 l 已有人浏览
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社交的可塑性降低了社会性昆虫的疾病传播,蚂蚁也会通过隔离“病号”来防止病菌传播。
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蚂蚁.jpg
Ants Stick to Cliques to Dodge Disease

蚂蚁与“病号蚂蚁群”隔离开来以躲避疾病

It's peak cold and flu season, which means taking a lot of preventive measures. Frequent hand-washing is a must. As is avoiding co-workers or friends who are sick. But we humans are not the only animals that change behavior to keep diseases at bay. So do ants.

这个季节是感冒和流感的高峰期,这意味着大家要采取很多预防措施。比如必须勤洗手,以及避免接触生病的同事或朋友。但我们人类并不是唯一一种通过改变行为来控制疾病的动物,蚂蚁也是如此。

“So there are the foragers and the nurses- it's two different groups of work."

“所以,有负责觅食的蚂蚁和负责看护的蚂蚁,这是两种不同的工作。”

Nathalie Stroeymeyt of the University of Lausanne. She and colleagues observed ants to see their reaction to the presence of a pathogen.

洛桑大学的纳塔利·斯特罗伊特表示到。她和同事观察了蚂蚁们对病原体的反应。

“With the nurses staying inside the nurse taking care of the brood and being made of young workers. And the foragers are all the workers at outside of the nest to collect food and defend the territory."

“负责看护的蚂蚁由年轻的蚂蚁组成,在洞穴里照看蚁卵。而负责觅食的蚂蚁都在洞穴外觅食及承担保卫领地的角色。”

Forager ants are at greater risk of getting exposed to diseases because they leave the safety of the nest. So the researchers sprayed a common fungus on a small group of forager ants and then followed their movements to see the way other ants reacted.

由于负责觅食的蚂蚁离开巢穴这个安全地带,因此更容易感染疾病。因此,研究人员在一小群负责觅食的蚂蚁身上喷洒了一种常见的真菌,然后跟踪它们的活动,并观察其它蚂蚁的反应。

“We marked all ants in the colony was individual labels, which carries these two-dimensional bar code marks like QR code which is automatically detected and recorded using a tracking system."

“我们给蚁群中的所有蚂蚁都打上了单独的标签,标签上带有类似二维条码标记的二维码,以此追踪系统可以自动检测和记录。

After the infection, the nurse and forager ants stayed within their cliques and interacted less outside of their work group. The researchers also saw that forager ants spent more time outside of the nest.

负责觅食的蚂蚁感染后,负责看护的蚂蚁与负责觅食的蚂蚁各自呆在属于自己的小圈子里,在两个圈子之外的互动变少了。研究人员还发现被真菌感染的觅食蚂蚁呆在巢穴外的时间变长了。

“They increase that amount by 15 percent so by quite a long large amount."

“(被真菌感染的觅食蚂蚁)呆在巢穴外的时间延长了相当长的一段时间,比平时长了约15%,”

The researchers also measured the amount of fungus on each ant and saw that it was almost completely contained within the foragers group. Some nurse ants and even the Queen did have trace amounts of the fungus' spores on them but the amount was small enough that they could easily groom them off of their bodies. The study is in the journal Science.

研究人员还测量了每只蚂蚁身上的真菌数量,发现几乎整个负责觅食的蚁群都受到了感染。一些负责看护的蚂蚁,甚至蚁后身上都有少量的真菌孢子,不过数量很小,它们可以很容易地将其清除。这项研究发表在《科学》杂志上。

Not only does the cliquish behavior stop the spread of the fungus, “but it allows you to develop immunization. Something that's quite interesting in these ants that's been shown by other study is that when you receive very small amount of these spores, you don't have an increase in mortality risk because it's low enough that you can heal, it's sort of boost your immune defenses and protect you against later exposure to the same pathogen.

这种搞小团体的行为不仅阻止了真菌的传播,“还能让增强蚂蚁免疫力。蚂蚁身上很有趣的现象,其它研究表明当蚂蚁接触到非常少量的这些孢子,并不会增加其死亡风险,因为孢子的量很少,所以蚂蚁可以自愈,这可以增强你蚂蚁的免疫防御力,保护蚂蚁不受同一病原体的侵袭。

Seems that in their ability to avoid infecting other members of the community, ants may be more advanced than we are.

蚂蚁似乎有能力避免感染团体里的其他成员,可能比我们更先进。

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